Template:Refend

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{{refbegin}} and its complementary closing template {{refend}} are used to apply any of several optional styles or presentational choices for bibliographies or reference lists‚ÄĒthat is, lists of fully-specified references, sources, or works cited, sorted alphabetically by author or contributor) that appear in Wikipedia articles.

These bibliographies or reference lists frequently appear in dedicated sections within an article, variously titled ==References==, ==Works cited==, ==Bibliography==, ==Further reading==, ==Published works==, and so on.

Wikipedia referencing or citation systems that use bibliography-style reference lists include: 'shortened' footnotes, parenthetical referencing, and 'general' referencing. The 'full' footnote and embedded citations referencing systems do not use those lists, although articles using these latter two systems may also contain "Further reading" or other sections containing bibliography-style listings, that {{refbegin}} formatting could be applied to.

The formatting options provided by this template are:

refbegin template options/parameters
Option How to get it Notes
default display {{refbegin}} no parameters needed, default fontsize is 90% of standard fontsize
display list in multiple columns {{refbegin|30em}} where 30em determines the width of columns based on the browser's screen width. Can be any value generally (e.g. 20em, 50em, etc.).
apply hanging indent {{refbegin|indent=yes}} will apply hanging indent if an individual reference wraps over more than one line in the browser's display window

Each use of {{refbegin}}, with or without parameters, needs an accompanying {{refend}} closing template to 'turn off' the formatting; refend does not need any parameters.

Font size reduction is applied by default. Either one, the other, or both of multi-columns and hanging indent may be applied as well (though see specifics and caveats on browser differences in relevant sections, below).

Usage

This template is used only for references‚ÄĒit should not be used to create lists of text which are smaller, in columns, or which have other style data associated with them.

With all (optional) parameters shown:

==References==
{{refbegin |30em |indent= }}
*list of bibliography/references entries..
...
{{refend}}

Placement

The {{refbegin}} is placed immediately below the header of the bibliography/references section its formatting will be applied to. The closing {{refend}} template is placed within the same section, at the end of the bibliography/references list content.

When used, each occurrence of {{refbegin}} should always be paired with a corresponding closing {{refend}} template:

==References==
{{refbegin}}
*1st entry in the bibliography/references list..
*2nd entry in the bibliography/references list..
...
*last entry in the bibliography/references list..
{{refend}}

The formatting provided by {{refbegin}} is "turned on" at the location where the template is placed, and is applied to all text after and below it, until it is "turned off" by a closing {{refend}} template (or </div> tag). Failing to provide a closing {{refend}} may produce unwanted effects in other sections that may appear below the 'References', 'Bibliography' etc. section, such as 'External links' sections that are usually placed at or near the article's end.

Option 1: Default behaviour

The default usage (without parameters) applies a style that reduces the text size of the bibliographies/reference list entries. This can be useful to make a long bibliography/list of references display more compactly, and it also mimics the formatting style applied to footnotes by the {{reflist}} template.

The {{reflist}} formats footnotes‚ÄĒany text in the article body that is placed between <ref> tags‚ÄĒthat are auto-generated by the cite.php extension, called by {{reflist}}. In the case of articles using the 'shortened' footnotes referencing system, these footnotes will typically contain an abbreviated citation such as <ref>Smith 2002, p.123</ref> that corresponds with an entry in the bibliography/references list section (other text such as discursive notes may appear as well).

The font size is set to 90% in the corresponding TemplateStyles page.

If the 'full' footnotes referencing system is used (i.e. there is no separate bibliography/references list, all cites/references are defined in <ref>...</ref> tags), then use {{reflist}} alone:

==References==
{{reflist}}

If there is a bibliography/references list but no footnoted citations (e.g. in general references or parenthetical referencing systems) then use {{refbegin}} and {{refend}} like so:

==References==
{{refbegin}}
*general reference 1
*general reference 2
{{refend}}

If there are footnoted citations and a separate bibliography/references list (i.e., the WP:CITESHORT system), then place {{reflist}} to generate the footnotes in one section (immediately above the bibliography/references list), and use {{refbegin}} in the latter section:

==Notes==
{{reflist}} <!--this will auto-generate the numbered list of footnotes/cites -->

==References==
{{refbegin}}
*bibliography entry / reference 1
*bibliography entry / reference 2
*etc
{{refend}}

Option 2: Multiple columns

If a value with a unit is supplied as the first parameter, i.e. 30em, the template will display the bibliography/references list in columns with a minimum width of that value, allowing the browser to determine the optimal number of columns. Using {{refbegin|30em}} for instance is useful for short citations. If no parameter is specified, the default is a single column.

==References==
{{refbegin|30em}}
*{{cite journal |author= Southworth, Jane |author2= Catherine Tucker |date= August 2001 |title= The Influence of Accessibility, Local Institutions, and Socioeconomic Factors on Forest Cover Change in the Mountains of Western Honduras |url= http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021%5B0276:TIOALI%5D2.0.CO%3B2 |format= PDF reproduction, BioOne online |journal= Mountain Research and Development |location= Boulder, CO |publisher= International Mountain Society and United Nations University |volume= 21 |issue= 3 |pages= 276‚Äď283 |doi= 10.1659/0276-4741(2001)021[0276:TIOALI]2.0.CO;2
 |issn= 0276-4741 |oclc= 107067006}}
*{{cite journal |author= Tucker, Catherine M. |author2= Darla K. Munroe |author3=Harini Nagendra |author4=Jane Southworth |date= June 2005 |title= Comparative Spatial Analyses of Forest Conservation and Change in Honduras and Guatemala |url= http://www.clas.ufl.edu/lueci/southworth/pubs-as-pdf/cs-3-1_10_jtuckeretal.pdf |format= PDF online open access article distributed under Creative Commons |journal= Conservation and Society |location= New Delhi and London |publisher= SAGE Publications |volume= 3 |issue= 1 |pages= 174‚Äď200 |issn= 0972-4923|oclc= 210806013}}
{{refend}}

References

Browser support

CSS3 multiple-column layout browser support
Property Internet
Explorer
Firefox Safari Chrome Opera
column-width
column-count
‚Č• 10
(2012)
‚Č• 1.5
(2005)
‚Č• 3
(2007)
‚Č• 1
(2008)
‚Č• 11.1
(2011)
columns ‚Č• 10
(2012)
‚Č• 9
(2011)
‚Č• 3
(2007)
‚Č• 1
(2008)
‚Č• 11.1
(2011)
break-before
break-after
break-inside
‚Č• 10
(2012)
‚Č• 65
(2019)
‚Č• 10
(2016)
‚Č• 65
(2016)
‚Č• 15
(2013)

Multiple columns are generated by using CSS3. See here for more information.

Option 3: Hanging indentation

A hanging indentation may be applied to bibliographies/reference lists by using the |indent = parameter. This option can be useful in long bibliographies/reference lists and in particular when individual entries in the list are long, i.e. they wrap over more than one line in the browser display window. Applying a hanging indent to the list makes it much easier to distinguish the keywords (i.e. normally the authors' names) in the bibliography and makes them stand out from preceding and succeeding lines of text. Hanging indents in bibliographies also form part of several widely used citation style implementations, such as APA, MLA, and Chicago.

To use, set {{refbegin|indent=yes}}.

Examples

Using {{refbegin}} with the hanging indent option |indent = yes applied
== References ==

{{refbegin|indent=yes}}
* {{cite book |author= Dakin, Karen|year= 1994|chapter= El n√°huatl en el yutoazteca sure√Īo: algunas isoglosas gramaticales y fonol√≥gicas|title= Investigaciones ling√ľ√≠sticas en Mesoam√©rica |series= Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas, no. 1|editor1=Carolyn MacKay |editor2=Ver√≥nica V√°zquez |publisher= Universidad Nacional Aut√≥noma de M√©xico, Instituto de Investigaciones Filol√≥gicas, Seminario de Lenguas Ind√≠genas|location= M√©xico D.F.|pages= 3‚Äď86 |isbn= 968-36-4055-9 |oclc= 34716589 |language=es}}
* {{cite conference |author1=Flores Farf√°n |author2=Jos√© Antonio |year= 2002|title= The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico |url= http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/ILAC/ILAC_24.pdf |format= [[Portable Document Format|PDF]] |conference= Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11‚Äď14, 2000) |book-title= Indigenous Languages across the Community |editor1=Barbara Jane Burnaby |editor2=John Allan Reyhner |location= Flagstaff, AZ |publisher= Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University |pages= 225‚Äď236 |isbn= 0-9670554-2-3 |oclc= 95062129}}
* {{cite book |author= Rinc√≥n, Antonio del |year= 1885 |orig-date= 1595 |title= Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio Del Rinc√≥n de la compa√Īia de Jesus: Dirigido al illustrissimo y reverendissimo s. Don Diego Romano obispo de Tlaxcallan, y del consejo de su magestad, &c. En Mexico en casa de Pedro, Balli. 1595 |url= http://storage.lib.uchicago.edu/pres/2005/pres2005-033.pdf |edition= Reprinted 1885 under the care of Dr. Antonio Pe√Īafiel |format= [[Portable Document Format|PDF]] facsimile, University of Chicago Library digital collections|location= M√©xico D.F. |publisher= Oficina tip. de la Secretar√≠a de fomento |oclc= 162761360 |language=es}}
* {{cite book |author= Voegelin, Charles F.|author2= Florence M. Voegelin |author3=Kenneth L. Hale |year= 1962 |title= Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan I: Phonology |type= Supplement to International Journal of American linguistics, vol. 28, no. 1 |series= Indiana University publications in anthropology and linguistics, Memoir 17 |location= Baltimore MD |publisher= Waverly Press |oclc= 55576894}}
{{refend}}

Template:Fake heading

Using indent in combination with multi-column (in this case, n = 2) display {{refbegin|2|indent=yes}} (note that multi-column only works in some browsers)
== References ==

{{refbegin|30em|indent=yes}}
* {{cite book |author= Dakin, Karen|year= 1994|chapter= El n√°huatl en el yutoazteca sure√Īo: algunas isoglosas gramaticales y fonol√≥gicas|title= Investigaciones ling√ľ√≠sticas en Mesoam√©rica |series= Estudios sobre Lenguas Americanas, no. 1|editor1=Carolyn MacKay |editor2=Ver√≥nica V√°zquez |publisher= Universidad Nacional Aut√≥noma de M√©xico, Instituto de Investigaciones Filol√≥gicas, Seminario de Lenguas Ind√≠genas|location= M√©xico D.F.|pages= 3‚Äď86 |isbn= 968-36-4055-9 |oclc= 34716589 |language=es}}
* {{cite conference |author1=Flores Farf√°n |author2=Jos√© Antonio |year= 2002|title= The Use of Multimedia and the Arts in Language Revitalization, Maintenance, and Development: The Case of the Balsas Nahuas of Guerrero, Mexico |url= http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/ILAC/ILAC_24.pdf |format= [[Portable Document Format|PDF]] |conference= Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11‚Äď14, 2000) |book-title= Indigenous Languages across the Community |editor1=Barbara Jane Burnaby |editor2=John Allan Reyhner |location= Flagstaff, AZ |publisher= Center for Excellence in Education, Northern Arizona University |pages= 225‚Äď236 |isbn= 0-9670554-2-3 |oclc= 95062129}}
* {{cite book |author= Rinc√≥n, Antonio del |year= 1885 |orig-date= 1595 |title= Arte mexicana compuesta por el padre Antonio Del Rinc√≥n de la compa√Īia de Jesus: Dirigido al illustrissimo y reverendissimo s. Don Diego Romano obispo de Tlaxcallan, y del consejo de su magestad, &c. En Mexico en casa de Pedro, Balli. 1595 |url= http://storage.lib.uchicago.edu/pres/2005/pres2005-033.pdf |edition= Reprinted 1885 under the care of Dr. Antonio Pe√Īafiel |format= [[Portable Document Format|PDF]] facsimile, University of Chicago Library digital collections|location= M√©xico D.F. |publisher= Oficina tip. de la Secretar√≠a de fomento |oclc= 162761360 |language=es}}
* {{cite book |author= Voegelin, Charles F.|author2= Florence M. Voegelin |author3=Kenneth L. Hale |year= 1962 |title= Typological and Comparative Grammar of Uto-Aztecan I: Phonology |format= Supplement to International Journal of American linguistics, vol. 28, no. 1 |series= Indiana University publications in anthropology and linguistics, Memoir 17 |location= Baltimore MD |publisher= Waverly Press |oclc= 55576894}}
{{refend}}

Template:Fake heading


Template data

Template:Refbegin/TemplateData

See also

This is the "Wikipedia logo"TemplateData for this template used by TemplateWizard, "Wikipedia logo"VisualEditor and other tools. Click here to see a monthly parameter usage report for this template based on this TemplateData.

TemplateData for Refend

{
    "description": "Ends a reference lists started by {{refbegin}}.",
    "params": {
    }
}